Bob's Byway


1716 - 1771


 * This well-known poem, written in the English form of heroic quatrains ( also called elegiac stanzas), provides an example of an elegy.
The curfew tolls the knell of parting day,
     The lowing herd wind slowly o'er the lea,
The plowman homeward plods his weary way,
      And leaves the world to darkness and to me.

 * Gray made effective use of most types of elision in this poem, many of which are identified for illustration.
Now fades the glimmering landscape on the sight,
     And all the air a solemn stillness holds,
Save where the beetle wheels his droning flight,
     And drowsy tinklings lull the distant folds;

Save that from yonder ivy-mantled tower
     The moping owl does to the moon complain
Of such, as wandering near her secret bower,
     Molest her ancient solitary reign.

Beneath those rugged elms, that yew-tree's shade,
     Where heaves the turf in many a mouldering heap,
Each in his narrow cell for ever laid,
     The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep.

 * Morn: apocope
The breezy call of incense-breathing Morn,     *
     The swallow twittering from the straw-built shed,
The cock's shrill clarion, or the echoing horn,
     No more shall rouse them from their lowly bed.

For them no more the blazing hearth shall burn,
     Or busy housewife ply her evening care:
No children run to lisp their sire's return,
 * the envied: hiatus
     Or climb his knees the envied kiss to share.     *

 * Oft: apocope
Oft did the harvest to their sickle yield,     *
     Their furrow oft the stubborn glebe has broke;
How jocund did they drive their team afield!
     How bowed the woods beneath their sturdy stroke!

Let not Ambition mock their useful toil,
     Their homely joys, and destiny obscure;
Nor Grandeur hear with a disdainful smile
     The short and simple annals of the poor.

The boast of heraldry, the pomp of power,
     And all that beauty, all that wealth e'er gave,
 * th' inevitable : synaloepha
Awaits alike th' inevitable hour.     *
     The paths of glory lead but to the grave.

Nor you, ye proud, impute to these the fault,
 * o'er: syncope
     If Memory o'er their tomb no trophies raise,     *
Where through the long-drawn aisle and fretted vault
     The pealing anthem swells the note of praise.

Can storied urn or animated bust
     Back to its mansion call the fleeting breath?
Can Honour's voice provoke the silent dust,
     Or Flattery soothe the dull cold ear of Death?

Perhaps in this neglected spot is laid
     Some heart once pregnant with celestial fire;
Hands, that the rod of empire might have swayed,
     Or waked to ecstasy the living lyre.

But Knowledge to their eyes her ample page
 * ne'er: syncope
     Rich with the spoils of time did ne'er unroll;     *
Chill Penury repressed their noble rage,
     And froze the genial current of the soul.

Full many a gem of purest ray serene,
     The dark unfathomed caves of ocean bear:
Full many a flower is born to blush unseen,
     And waste its sweetness on the desert air.

Some village Hampden, that with dauntless breast
     The little tyrant of his fields withstood;
Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest,
     Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood.

Th' applause of listening senates to command,
     The threats of pain and ruin to despise,
To scatter plenty o'er a smiling land,
     And read their history in a nation's eyes,

Their lot forbade: nor circumscribed alone
     Their growing virtues, but their crimes confined;
Forbade to wade through slaughter to a throne,
     And shut the gates of mercy on mankind,

The struggling pangs of conscious truth to hide,
     To quench the blushes of ingenuous shame,
Or heap the shrine of Luxury and Pride
     With incense kindled at the Muse's flame.

Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife,
     Their sober wishes never learned to stray;
Along the cool sequester'd vale of life
     They kept the noiseless tenor of their way.

Yet ev'n these bones from insult to protect,
     Some frail memorial still erected nigh,
With uncouth rhymes and shapeless sculpture decked,
     Implores the passing tribute of a sigh.

 * th' unlettered : synaloepha
Their name, their years, spelt by th' unlettered Muse,     *
     The place of fame and elegy supply:
And many a holy text around she strews,
     That teach the rustic moralist to die.

For who to dumb Forgetfulness a prey,
     This pleasing anxious being e'er resigned,
Left the warm precincts of the cheerful day,
     Nor cast one longing, lingering look behind?

On some fond breast the parting soul relies,
     Some pious drops the closing eye requires;
Ev'n from the tomb the voice of Nature cries,
     Ev'n in our ashes live their wonted fires.

For thee, who mindful of th' unhonoured Dead
     Dost in these lines their artless tale relate;
If chance, by lonely contemplation led,
     Some kindred spirit shall inquire thy fate,--

Haply some hoary-headed swain may say,
     "Oft have we seen him at the peep of dawn
Brushing with hasty steps the dews away
 * the upland: hiatus
     To meet the sun upon the upland lawn.     *

"There at the foot of yonder nodding beech
     That wreathes its old fantastic roots so high,
His listless length at noontide would he stretch,
     And pore upon the brook that babbles by.

"Hard by yon wood, now smiling as in scorn,
      Muttering his wayward fancies he would rove,
Now drooping, woeful wan, like one forlorn,
     Or crazed with care, or crossed in hopeless love.

 * 'customed: aphesis
"One morn I missed him on the 'customed hill,     *
     Along the heath and near his favorite tree;
Another came; nor yet beside the rill,
     Nor up the lawn, nor at the wood was he;

"The next with dirges due in sad array
     Slow through the church-way path we saw him borne.
Approach and read (for thou canst read) the lay,
     Graved on the stone beneath yon aged thorn."

The Epitaph
Here rests his head upon the lap of Earth
     A youth to Fortune and to Fame unknown.
Fair Science frowned not on his humble birth,
     And Melancholy marked him for her own.

Large was his bounty, and his soul sincere,
     Heaven did a recompense as largely send:
He gave to Misery (all he had) a tear,
 * 'twas: aphaeresis
     He gained from Heaven ('twas all he wished) a friend.     *

No farther seek his merits to disclose,
To Elegy in the Glossary
Alphabetic Page Version Entire Glossary Version
To Elision in the Glossary
Alphabetic Page Version Entire Glossary Version
To Heroic Quatrain in the Glossary
Alphabetic Page Version Entire Glossary Version
     Or draw his frailties from their dread abode,
(There they alike in trembling hope repose)
     The bosom of his Father and his God.